Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching
- 12 May 2020
- Posted by: Durgesh
- Category: Teaching Aptitude
The UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus consist of 10 units, in this article we will discuss about teaching aptitude only.
- Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory, Understanding and Reflective), Characteristics and basic requirements
- Learner’s characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners (Academic, Social, Emotional and Cognitive), Individual differences
- Factors affecting teaching related to: Teacher, Learner, Support material, Instructional facilities, Learning environment and Institution
- Methods of teaching in Institutions of higher learning: Teacher centred vs. Learner-centred methods; Off-line vs. On-line methods
- Teaching Support System: Traditional, Modern and ICT based
- Evaluation Systems: Elements and Types of evaluation,
- Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher education,
- Computer-based testing,
PART I: Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory, Understanding and Reflective), Characteristics and basic requirements
Section A: Concept of Teaching
Teaching is the process of attending to people’s needs, experiences and feelings, and intervening so that they learn particular things, and go beyond the given.
What expert says:
- Ryburn’s view: “Teaching is a relationship which keeps the child to develop all his powers.”
- Burton’s view: “Teaching is the stimulation guidance, direction, and encouragement of learning.”
- Smith’s view: In words of B.O. Smith, “Teaching is a system of actions intended to produce learning.”
Section B: Objectives of Teaching
- To bring desired changes in pupils.
- To shape behaviour and conduct.
- Acquisition of knowledge
- To improve the learning skills of students.
- Formation of belief.
- To provide a social and efficient member of society.
Section C: Levels of Teaching
The three levels of teaching are
- Memory level: Thoughtless teaching
- Understanding level: Thoughtful teaching
- Reflective level: Upper thoughtful level
Memory Level of Teaching (MLT)
- This knowledge or information is factual in nature, which is acquired through a mechanical process (i.e. memorization or rote learning).
- Memory Level of teaching covers only the knowledge-based objective of Bloom’s taxonomy where the students learn to identify, recall, or remember the objects, events, ideas, and concepts and retain them in memory.
- Memory level teaching lacks insight. Psychologically, it is cognitive level teaching.
Understanding Level of Teaching (ULT)
- The term “understanding” literally means to comprehend, to grasp, and to have knowledge of, to learn, to interpret and to infer, etc.
- Morris, L.Bigge, in his book, ‘Learning theory for Teachers’, defines that understanding level teaching, “seeks to acquaint students with the relationships between generalizations and particulars, between principles and solitary facts, and which show- the use to which the principles may be applied.”
- Herbart mentions three forms of mental reality which play an important role in teaching-learning at the understanding level. They are sense impressions, images, and elective elements of pleasure and pain. In Herbart’s arrangements, the teacher is conceived as an architect as well as the builder of the minds of the students by manipulating ideas to construct a student’s circle of thought.
Reflective Level of Teaching (RLT)
This Level of teaching is the highest level of teaching-learning activity. It is the stage of learning when students do not merely repeat and revise or answer the questions as asked for; nor do they only understand, learn, interrelate or interpret the concepts but also they ponder upon, contemplate and pay serious thoughtful consideration to the presented contents.
Section D: Characteristics
- System of actions: Teaching is a system of actions varied in form and related to content and pupil behaviour under the prevailing physical and social conditions.
- Professional activity: It is a professional activity involving a teacher and student with a view to the development of students’ personality. Professionalism helps students in being regular and making harmony with their objects towards those they are concentrated.
- Subjected to analysis and assessment: Teaching can be analysed and assessed and analysis and assessment provide feedback for further improvement.
- Interactive process: Teaching is highly dominated by communication skills. Teaching is an interactive process carried with purpose and objectives.
- Specialized Task: It is a specialized task and may be taken as a set of skills for the realization of certain objectives.
- Collection of various modes: Teaching is a collection of various modes of itself. It is a broader term. Terms like conditioning, training, instruction, indoctrination denote a kind of teaching. They are a part of teaching but not a synonym with teaching. These are various modes of teaching contributing to teaching.
Section E: Basic requirements
The teaching process involves:
1. Dependent Variable:
The student is a dependent variable. He is subjected to changes and developments through the efforts of the teacher and teaching process.
2. Independent Variable:
The teacher is an independent variable. he teacher does plans, organizes, leads and controls the process of teaching. Like dependent variables, independent variables also play the functional or active part.
3. Intervening Variables
There is a need for desirable interaction between the dependent and the independent variable to achieve the goals of teaching. This role is played by the intervening variables. The content of teaching, methods and techniques, tactics and strategies management of instructional material and teaching environments, etc.
Basic requirements of teaching are:
- All three variables of teaching
- Suitable environment
- Teacher-student relationship
- Student’s discipline
- Teacher’s devotion to teaching, and also, on the other hand, student’s devotion to learning.