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It is a process of transmitting and sharing ideas, opinions, facts, values, etc. from one person to another or one organization to another.

Significance of Communication

  • Communication promotes motivation by informing and clarifying the employees about the task to be done.
  • Communication is a source of information to the organizational members for the decision-making process
  • Communication also plays a crucial role in altering an individual’s attitude
  • Communication also helps in socializing
  • Communication also assists in the controlling process


Communications objectives include

  • Creating awareness,
  • Imparting knowledge,
  • Projecting an image,
  • Shaping attitudes,
  • Stimulating a want or desire,
  • Effecting a sale.

Types and Forms of Communication

A. Types of communication

Broadly speaking, whole human communication could be classified into two distinct parts.

  • Intrapersonal communication 
  • Interpersonal communication

Intrapersonal communication

The part of communication in which self of a human being is involved only and the communication is confined to one human entity. 

All the processes of meditation, thinking, monologue and even dreaming while asleep are all but examples of intra-communication.

Interpersonal communication

This part of communication belongs to involving two or more individuals for the exchange of information.

Group Communication

More often people are seen exchanging views with almost all the participants enjoying an equal status on one count or the other. Like all the players of a hockey team, class-fellows, doctors, teachers, etc.

Organizational communication

In this part, communication usually takes place on vertical lines. For instance, a company director is passing on instructions to managers who would be guided accordingly to field officers and the relevant
other field staff.

Mass Communication

In this category, we refer to the communication originating from one source and meant for all possible audiences irrespective of distance, caste, creed, religion, nationality and beyond.

B. Forms of Communication

The communication process can be divided into two different forms of exchanging messages.
• Verbal
• Nonverbal


All the messages said or written in words make part of the verbal communication. This way, all that appears as text in books, magazines, and newspapers is part of verbal communication.

a. Senses

Part of human communication involving other than written or spoken words is referred to as nonverbal communication. It involves human senses – sight, taste, touch, hearing, and smelling.

Symbols, signs

Emblems, gestures, symbols, and signs make more vivid and strong communication as compared to words that are often difficult to decipher.
For instance making a victory sign by politicians, army generals, sportspersons and leaders in general at the time of defeating the enemy is easily understood even by the illiterate.


For practical purposes, however, the use of verbal and nonverbal makes a very strong piece of communication. One may see a match on TV but an enthusiast commentator may relish the joy if your favorite team is winning the game. Similarly, feature films, documentaries, and dramas on the mini screen stand for more effective pieces of communication than if only one form of communication is brought into use.

7 C’s of effective communication


When writing or speaking to someone, be clear about your goal or message.

  • What is your purpose in communicating with this person?

If you’re not sure, then your audience won’t be sure either.


When you’re concise in your communication, you stick to the point and keep it brief. Your audience doesn’t want to read six sentences when you could communicate your message in three.

  • Are there any adjectives or “filler words” that you can delete? You can often eliminate words like “for instance,” “you see,” “definitely,” “kind of,” “literally,” “basically,” or “I mean.”
  • Are there any unnecessary sentences?
  • Have you repeated the point several times, in different ways?


When your message is concrete, then your audience has a clear picture of what you’re telling them. There are details (but not too many!) and vivid facts, and there’s the laser-like focus. Your message is solid.


When your communication is correct, it fits your audience. And correct communication is also error-free communication.

  • Do the technical terms you use fit your audience’s level of education or knowledge?
  • Have you checked your writing for grammatical errors? Remember, spell checkers won’t catch everything.
  • Are all names and titles spelled correctly?


When your communication is coherent, it’s logical. All points are connected and relevant to the main topic, and the tone and flow of the text are consistent.


In a complete message, the audience has everything they need to be informed and, if applicable, take action.

  • Does your message include a “call to action,” so that your audience clearly knows what you want them to do?
  • Have you included all the relevant information – contact names, dates, times, locations, and so on?


Courteous communication is friendly, open, and honest. There are no hidden insults or passive-aggressive tones. You keep your reader’s viewpoint in mind, and you’re empathetic to their needs.

Some more C’s are

  • Credible – Does your message improve or highlight your credibility? This is especially important when communicating with an audience that doesn’t know much about you.
  • Creative – Does your message communicate creatively? Creative communication helps keep your audience engaged.

Barriers to Communication

Semantic Barriers

  • Symbols with different meanings
  • Faulty translation
  • Badly constructed messages
  • Use of jargons

Psychological Barriers

  • Information overload
  • Time pressure due to deadline
  • Inattention
  • Premature evaluation
  • Poor retention

Organizational Barriers

  • Rules, regulations, policies
  • Complexity in organizational structure
  • Specialization

Personal Barriers

  • Feeling of jealousy
  • Attitude of people
  • Lack of confidence
  • Lack of awareness
  • Perceptual differences

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