Meaning, types and characteristics of communication
- 12 May 2020
- Posted by: Durgesh
- Category: Uncategorised
The UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus consist of 10 units, in this article we will discuss about Communication only
- Communication: Meaning, types and characteristics of communication.
- Effective communication: Verbal and Non-verbal, Inter-Cultural and group communications, Classroom communication.
- Barriers to effective communication.
- Mass-Media and Society
Part I: Communication: Meaning, types and characteristics of communication.
Section A: Communication – Meaning
Communication refers to the imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium.
Communication is the exchange of ideas, opinions and information through written or spoken words, symbols or actions.
Section B: Characteristics of Communication:
- Two-way communication: Communication is a two-way process of understanding between two or more persons; sender and receiver. A person cannot communicate with himself or herself.
- Continuous Process: Exchanges of ideas and opinion among people is an ongoing process in business and non-business world. Continuous interaction promotes understanding and exchange of information relevant for decision-making.
- Dynamic Process: Communication between sender and receiver takes different forms and medium depending upon their moods and behaviour. It is, thus, a dynamic process that keeps changing in different situations.
- Pervasive: Communication is a pervasive activity. It takes place at all levels (top, middle, lower) in all functional areas (production, finance, personnel, sales etc.) of a business organisation.
- Two People: A minimum of two persons; sender and receiver, must be present for communication to take place. It may be between superior, subordinates and peer group.
- Exchange: Communication involves the exchange of ideas and opinions. People interact and develop an understanding of each other.
- Mutual understanding: Communication is effective when sender and receiver develop a mutual understanding of the subject. Messages conveyed should be understood by both parties.
- Goal-Oriented: Communication is goal-oriented. Unless the receiver and sender know the purpose, they intend to achieve through communication, it has little practical utility.
Section C: Types of Communication
Types of communication-based on channels:
A. Verbal Communication
Verbal communication refers to the form of communication in which a message is transmitted verbally.
Verbal Communication is divided into:
- Oral Communication
- Written Communication
In oral communication, Spoken words are used. It includes face-to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice-over-internet.
In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate. A written message may be printed or handwritten. In written communication message can be transmitted via email, letter, report, memo etc.
B. Non-Verbal Communication
We can say that communication other than oral and written, such as gesture, body language, posture, tone of voice or facial expressions, is called nonverbal communication.
Non-Verbal communication has the following three elements:
Speaker: clothing, hairstyle, neatness, use of cosmetics
Surrounding: room size, lighting, decorations, furnishings
facial expressions, gestures, postures
Voice Tone, Volume, Speech rate
Types of Communication Based on Purpose and Style:
Formal communication occurs in a formal and official style. Usually, professional settings, corporate meetings, conferences undergo in formal pattern.
In formal communication, use of slang and foul language is avoided and correct pronunciation is required. Authority lines are needed to be followed in formal communication.
Types of Informal Communication
Types of Communication in an organization:
A. Internal Communication
Communication within an organization is called “Internal Communication”.
Under Internal Communication, types are:
Upward communication is the flow of information from subordinates to superiors, or from employees to management.
Upward Communication is a mean for the staff to:
- Exchange information
- Offer ideas
- Express enthusiasm
- Achieve job satisfaction
- Provide feedback
Information flowing from the top of the organizational management hierarchy and telling people in the organization what is important (mission) and what is valued (policies).
This type of communication is needed in an organization to:
- Transmit vital information
- Give instructions
- Encourage 2-way discussion
- Announce decisions
- Seek cooperation
Both Downward & Upward Communications are collectively called “Vertical Communication”
Horizontal/ Lateral communication
In this communication, normally involves coordinating information, and allows people with the same or similar rank in an organization to cooperate or collaborate.
Horizontal Communication is essential for:
- Solving problems
- Accomplishing tasks
- Improving teamwork
- Building goodwill
- Boosting efficiency
Diagonal communication includes the horizontal flow of information, among people on the same or similar organizational levels and the diagonal flow, among persons at different levels who have no direct reporting relationship with one another.
It is an informal, unofficial and personal communication channel or system that takes place within the organization as a result of rumour and gossip.
B. External Communication
Communication with people outside the company is called “external communication”. Supervisors communicate with sources outside the organization, such as vendors and customers.
It leads to better:
- Sales volume
- Public credibility
- Operational efficiency
- Company profits
Types of Communication based on Receivers:
Intra-Personal Communication: It refers to talking to oneself in one’s own mind. It is a communicator’s internal use of language or thought. Examples: Asides or soliloquy in dramatic works.
Interpersonal Communication: It is the exchange of facts, information and messages between two persons. For example, a conversation, an interview, letter or dialogue, in which two persons interact (others may also be present as the audience).
Group Communication: It is an extension of interpersonal communication where more than two persons are involved in the exchange of ideas, messages, skills, and interests. Examples: Meeting in an organization, club or classroom, Committee meetings
Mass Communication: It refers to imparting and exchanging of information on a large scale to a wide range of people.